Violating their pledge to the Arabs for independence in return for their revolt against the Ottoman Turks, Great Britain and France became overlords of the Arab world in the wake of World War I. The European allies parceled out much of the land to themselves creating artificial states with artificial borders; ignoring ethnic, tribal, and sectarian lines; and anointing particular clans as royal families to rule over others.
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This left immense bitterness against the Western powers. Uprisings, such as occurred in the newly created Iraq in the s, were ruthlessly suppressed. Formal independence eventually occurred, but always with the British and French maintaining their influence. After World War II, Britain tried to continue its administration of Palestine, but increasing violence from the Zionist movement and Palestinians prompted the British to throw the matter to the United Nations, which devised a plan to partition Palestine between Arabs and Jews.
Before the partition was to take effect, the Zionist leaders proclaimed the independence of the state of Israel--which was promptly recognized by the U. The obvious reason for the U.
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Policymakers, lacking an understanding of free trade and international markets, have labored under the fallacy that access to Middle East oil requires a heavy U. To that end, U. The starkest example came in when the CIA engineered the toppling of an elected government in Iran and restored the repressive Shah to power. This set the stage for a radical Islamic reaction that figures in many current difficulties.
The most popular method of cultivating friends has been the funneling of American taxpayer money and military equipment to regional agents, who often brutally repressed internal opponents of their autocratic regimes. This is best illustrated by the U.
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That assistance included providing the means of developing and using chemical and biological weapons. When Hussein struck too independent a course and invaded Kuwait in , the U. The other motive for U. The upshot is that U. For example, support for Israel and the U. Also, click here for Bibliography for Crisis and Leviathan. Eland, Ivan. Gress, David R. IV, No. Higgs, Robert. Lenczowski, George.
Dislocation: space and the question of naming
The Middle East in World Affairs. Ithaca, N. Meyer, Karl E. New York: Public Affairs, Nuseibeh, H. The Ideas of Arab Nationalism. Good analysis of Arab nationalism historically and sociologically. Vargas Llosa, Alvaro. Dobbs, Michael.
MacArthur, John R. Berkeley, Calif. Menon, S. Summers, Jr. New York: Dell Publishing, Swofford, Anthony. New York: Scribner, Watson, Bruce W. Military Lessons of the Gulf. New York: Greenhill Press, Arnove, Anthony. Boston: South End Press, Bock, Alan W. Foreign Policy. Eland, Ivan, and Bernard Gourley. Washington, D. Gregory, Anthony. Henderson, David R. Hersh, Seymour M. War in Iraq.
Marshall, Jonathan V. Pitt, William Rivers. Context Books, Rai, Milan. New York: Verso Books, Halliday, Fred.
Iran, Dictatorship and Development. New York: Viking Press, Kinzer, Stephen. Sick, Gary.
Anti-Zionism and Antisemitism in the Contemporary World | SpringerLink
Ahmad, Imad-ad-Dean. Islam and the West: A Dialog. Aldrich, Richard J. Armstrong, Karen. Islam: A Short History. New York: Modern Library, Kepel, Gilles. Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam. Cambridge, Mass. Kuran, Timur.
III, No. Rashid, Ahmed. New Haven: Yale University Press, Stephens, Joe and David B. Baroud, Ramzy, ed. Searching Jenin. Seattle: Cune Press, Chomsky, Noam. Cowen, Tyler. Ennes, Jr. New York: Random House, Testimony of the Israeli attack on the U. Liberty, written by a member of the crew.